Refrigeration Cycle Diagram

The continuous absorption type of cooling unit is operated by the application of a limited amount of heat furnished by gas, electricity or kerosene. Chapter 10 refrigeration cycles the actual vapor compression refrigeration cycle download vapour compression refrigeration cycle engineering tutorials air conditioning pv diagram wiring. The Refrigeration lab was conducted to gain a better understanding of the vapour-compression refrigeration cycle, and to compare the ideal cycle with the real cycle. The one usually used for refrigeration purposes is the vapor compression cycle with reciprocating compressors. An interactive simulation that also demonstrates the behavior. The groceries and the outside air act as thermal reservoirs in this process. Danfoss Refrigeration & Air Conditioning is a worldwide manufacturer with a leading core business of making quality products, components and systems that enhance performance and reduce total life cycle costs - the key to major savings. Time has elapsed. Use of an ejector as expansion device is one of the alternative way. Evaporation occurs at a low temperature and low pressure while condensation occurs at a high temperature and high pressure. Ideal Two Stage + Economizer Refrigeration Process Cycle for Propane Posted on March 1, 2014 by conceptualplan One of the weak spots in the Single Stage Refrigeration Process Cycle Design is the large amount of flash-gas generated after the expansion valve. The Basic Arena Refrigeration course introduces participants to the cycle of refrigeration and primary mechanical components of an ice rink refrigeration system. Dangers of Ammonia Refrigeration. Ammonia (NH₃) Ammonia (NH 3 ) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety. refrigeration system and the operating cycle on a T s diagram (Fig. Evaporative cooler 2. 2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. The vapour compression refrigeration cycle is classified as follows : 1. In reefer ships, the temperature of the perishable or temperature sensitive cargo such as food, chemical, or liquefied gas, is controlled by the refrigeration plant of the ship. Basic refrigeration cycle Nina sri maulani (121624023) TPTU 2012 2. Refrigeration Cycle: Screencast Explains each step in a refrigeration cycle and the energy balance for each step. It takes refrigerant vapor in from the low pressure side of the circuit, and discharges it at a much higher pressure into the high pressure side of the circuit. The latent heat of vaporization of the refrigerant is used to transfer large amounts of heat energy. The ammonia refrigeration cycle works by bringing warm air into the refrigeration system, stripping the heat out of it, and then sending the cooled air back where it needs to be. It provides an upper limit on the efficiency that any classical thermodynamic engine can achieve during the conversion of heat into work, or conversely, the efficiency of a refrigeration system in creating a temperature difference by. Those parts of mechanical refrigeration system in which the pressure of gas remains low, called the low pressure side and the parts in which pressure remains high, called the high pressure side of the system. on refrigeration cycles more than on the actual componen- ts used. Start studying Specialized Hand Tools - Refrigeration Cycle. This is because the work done by or on the system and the heat added to or removed from the system can be visualized on the T-s diagram. Simple refrigeration system studied in the laboratory is a prototype for a variety of engineering applications utilized in industrial, domestic and scientific purposes. R-22 Refrigeration Cycle - Part 1 Available - July 30, 2021 R-22 Refrigeration Cycle - Part 2. Mollier diagram is necessary in the process of developing the refrigeration system. Understanding the basic refrigeration cycle diagram also helps us to find subcooled superheat and to troubleshoot refrigeration processes m… This case is to review the practical use of the Pressure-Enthalpy (P-H) diagram and the thermodynamic analysis of the refrigeration cycle using the P-H diagram; the Refrigerant Flow Diagram corresponding. The high-pressure ammonia liquid flows through the expansion valve. This figure shows the evolution of the fluid states in the transcritical refrigeration cycle over time. The refrigeration cycle starts with a low-pressure liquid/gas mix entering the evaporator. In actual air-conditioning applications for R-12 and R-22, and operating at a condenser temperature of 40° C and an evaporator temperature of 5° C, the heat rejection factor is about (A) 1 (B) 1. Equipment Placement, Mounting, Rigging. developed for the mixed refrigeration cycle is compared to the experimental operation of the mixed refrigerant apparatus. In the evaporator, heat from the process water or water/glycol solution boils the refrigerant, which changes it from a low-pressure liquid to a low-pressure gas. 0 of 15 questions answered correctly. The points which are required for engineering calculation are from H 1 to H. In the gas cycle, the refrigeration effect is equal to the product of the specific heat of the gas and the rise in temperature of the gas in the low temperature side. • Pressure-enthalpy diagram for R -12 • Pressure-enthalpy table for R -12 • Vapor compression refrigeration system • P, T, H, and phase changes in a vapor compression refrigeration cycle 2. Fogging system 3. Evaporative cooler 2. , Stone Mountain, GA 30087 ˜ 770-465-5600 ˜ www. Refrigeration cycle - Evaporation, compression, condensation and expansion. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. Accessories: air inlet temperature gauge, air inlet pressure gauge, on/off switch, high temperature light, power on light, refrigeration gauge, air outlet temperature. Receiver, filter drier and sight glass 3. It's not cold! The next thing you do is open up the freezer and see if that is still working properly. Energy is transferred from a low level to high level, which is contrary to. When you can draw a refrigeration cycle on a p-h diagram, you can easily obtain the refrigerant characteristics through the diagram. Question: An ideal vapor refrigeration cycle with R134a is operated between saturation temperature of -22 {eq}^\circ {/eq}C in the evaporator and 46. The area enclosed by the points 12341 represents the work of compression in a single stage compressor. 2 VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE Vapour compression cycle is an improved type of air refrigeration cycle in which a suitable. In this cycle, the refrigerant is sealed condition in an airtight mechanism is compressed in a compressor which permits the transfer of heat energy. Refrigeration handbook 1. • The ordinary vapor-compression refrigeration systems are simple, inexpensive, reliable, and practically maintenance-free. This is the method in which refrigerant is contained and circulated through the system in order to absorb unwanted heat and carry it to another location. In the Hvac field there are generally two types of capacitors, run caps and start caps. In a cascade refrigeration system, two or more vapor-compression cycles with different refrigerants are used. Figure 5 - A simple stylized diagram of a heat pump's vapor-compression refrigeration cycle: 1) condenser, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator, 4) compressor. refrigeration system • To be able to use pressure-enthalpy diagrams and tables • To determine the C. This refrigeration system components consists of a compressor, cooler, Expander, and refrigerator. The Mechanical PE Exam covers the topic of Refrigeration. Larger is the irreversibility in a refrigeration cycle operating with a given refrigeration load between two fixed temperature levels, larger is the amount of work required to operate the cycle. Analysis of similar process performance requires the analysis of thermodynamics of the refrigeration cycle. Glycol secondary cooling systems are gaining a foothold in the industry and are known for decreasing catastrophic refrigerant leaks. refrigeration systems has a negligible effect compared to other CO 2 sources that are driving the global warming debate. Propane Refrigeration Cycle - posted in Chemical Process Simulation: Hi,I am trying to simulate a Propane refrigeration cycle in Hysys, and I have some questions in this regard as follows:-What is the condenser outlet temperature? Is there any specific numberfor that?-In our company previous simulations, there is a heater after chiller with 2-5⁰C. Then, as a supplement, the engine was run as a refrigerator by using a rotary tool. The former of these is negative. Figure 6- Pressure-enthalpy diagram of an ideal refrigeration cycle. This is the confusing part, but it is essential you have a basic understanding so that you can separate the fact from fiction when liaising with suppliers and make and educated judgement. Such diagrams for R134a and R1234yf are found in handbooks (ASHRAE, 2009). Best day of training that I have ever been to in 26 years of being in the trade. The Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle is nearly 200 years old, but it does not seem ready to leave the scene any time soon. The diagram will hence show the saturation curve. Figure 7 is the refrigeration cycle shown in a P–T–X diagram. The compressor constricts the refrigerant vapor, raising its pressure and temperature, and pushes it into the coils of the condenser on the outside of the refrigerator. This cycle is used for aircraft refrigeration. diurnal cycle (Critoph [3]). 12 refrigeration cycle in the present study takes advantage of an additional heat exchanger called an internal heat exchanger, which allows for additional evaporation after the fluid leaves the evaporator and additional condensing after the refrigerant leaves the condenser. A cascade refrigeration cycle is a multi-stage thermodynamic cycle. CFM – Cubic feet per minute. All units are supplied with ABS (UV) protected covers, In-Cab control with digital cargo box temperature display, condenser fan cycle control and high/low pressure protection. During the normal refrigeration cycle, the system acts just like any other DX system where the condenser provides the liquid refrigerant that will feed the system TEVs. Simple refrigeration system studied in the laboratory is a prototype for a variety of engineering applications utilized in industrial, domestic and scientific purposes. However, a refrigerator producing one tonne of ice in a diurnal cycle would need 5 tonnes of carbon and contain 1. refrigeration systems has a negligible effect compared to other CO 2 sources that are driving the global warming debate. The refrigerant enters the throttling valve as a satu- rated liquid at 300C in one cycle and as subcooled liquid at 300C in the other one. The direction of the cyclic process in theT-s diagram determines w hether this is a heat pump cycle (refrigeration cycle) or a work machine cycle (steam power cycle). Chiller Systems Design. The layout shown below is a clickable image. The Carnot cycle has been used for power, but we can also run it in reverse. Evaporator. Irreversibility includes pressure drops in lines and. When more refrigerant flows, there is more refrigeration capacity in the evaporator and at some point the suction line will become cooler because of it. ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. AmmoniaTraining. The Carnot cycle is a theoretical ideal thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU;. Expansion valves 5. This refrigeration system components consists of a compressor, cooler, Expander, and refrigerator. Danfoss components are designed to provide the lowest total cost of ownership, while at the same time ensure near-zero downtime in food-processing plants, warehouse & storage facilities. [email protected] Larger is the irreversibility in a refrigeration cycle operating with a given refrigeration load between two fixed temperature levels, larger is the amount of work required to operate the cycle. Figure 13 shows the components in the cycle and Figure 14 shows the basic cycle on the Ph diagram. (a) Introduction to refrigeration. The refrigeration cycle explains to us what is happening to the ac freon in each of the four components within the air conditioner units. For instance, in a refrigerated space it is important to ensure that temperature variations are minimized. Installing at the indoor coil is good practice for two main reasons. After compression (2-3), the air bled from the main compressor is cooled by ram air in the first heat exchanger or intercooler (3-4). From the thousand images online about schematic diagram of refrigeration cycle, selects the very best series together with ideal quality exclusively for you all, and this pictures is one among photos choices in this finest images gallery about Schematic Diagram Of Refrigeration Cycle. Before we dive in, let's get an understanding of four key concepts: # 1: Heat of Vaporization. Thermodynamic cycle refers to any closed system that undergoes various changes due to temperature, pressure, and volume, however, its final and initial state are equal. compressor c. Condensate Drain. Figure 2, shows the p-h diagram of CO 2. A simplified schematic diagram of the DAR cycle is depicted in Figure 1. 10-11 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. In this process, heat absorption and rejection follows at the constant pressure; the compression and expansion of process are isentropic. Water and liquid ammonia begin to boil and ammonia vapor rises up to the condenser, the highest portion of the cooling unit. Figure 5: P-H diagram representation of a dry refrigeration cycle. The air after the evaporator (state 2) has a temperature of +14ºC. Tele: (01928) Figure 5: P-H diagram representation of a dry refrigeration cycle. The air is adiabatically compressed, passes through a cooler, and is adiabatically expanded in an expansion engine. Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV) Before the evaporator, this is located at the end of the liquid line. Fogging system 3. It is also used in domestic and commercial refrigerators, large-scale. The cycle starts with the evaporator, which has a liquid refrigerant that flows over the evaporator tube bundle where it evaporates. Cycle diagram Template to show how things are related to each other in a repeating cycle. Case study data are given in Table 6. An actual vapour compression cycle is shown in Fig. In Part (b), we can work our way around the cycle in the TS Diagram and evaluate H for every stream. A Basic R134a Vapor-Compression Refrigeration System. The refrigeration cycles can also be represented in a P-H diagram. Strong solution of ammonia is formed in the absorber, dissolving fairly dry Ammonia Vapour in cold water. 1976 F-Body AC 8 Cylinder Engine - Electrical & Vacuum. This applies both to domestic and professional use in trade, craft, gastronomy, commerce and labor. 2- Compressor. System Operators. The reciprocating. Table 2 is a typical experiment of the refrigeration cycle. This rejection of heat from low level to higher level of temp. The evaporator pressure for both cycles is the same. Q QL 2 4 3 1 T s. Mechanical refrigeration system (direct type) 4. The evaporator pressure is 160 kPa. For each kg of ice produced, 333 kJ of energy must be removed from the potable water supply. Thermodynamic Calculations of Two-Stage Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle with Flash Chamber and Separate Vapor Mixing Intercooler Introduction In the event that a high COP of a refrigeration cycle is of greater importance compared to other factors, it is possible to significantly increase the COP of a basic cycle through the use of a. Then, we can use the definition of COP to evaluate W cycle. REFRIGERATION CYCLE The refrigeration cycle shown here is a typical R-22 system. In the gas cycle, the refrigeration effect is equal to the product of the specific heat of the gas and the rise in temperature of the gas in the low temperature side. Carnot cycle and Carnot engine. 1976 F-Body AC 8 Cylinder Engine - Electrical & Vacuum. Explains each step in a refrigeration cycle and the energy balance for each step. An Introduction to Ammonia Refrigeration Systems ASHRAE is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. The trainer is a completely self contained and fully operational unit that contains the basic components found in many refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Second, the compressor raises the pressure of the refrigerant vapor to a level high enough so that the saturation temperature is higher. The refrigeration cycle uses the principles of thermodynamics to efficiently move heat from one area to another. Quasistatic and reversible processes. For comparison, a simple stylized diagram of a heat pump's vapor-compression refrigeration cycle: 1) condenser, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator, 4) compressor The thermodynamics of the cycle can be analysed on a diagram [4] [5] as shown in Figure 2. ME 354 Tutorial, Week#5 - Refrigeration Cycle A large refrigeration plant is to be maintained at -15°C, and it requires refrigeration at a rate of 100kW. 15 K (5°C) in a surroundings at 303. The process where a gas or liquid change its temperature when it is forced through an expansion valve or capillary tube in an insulated system where no ambient heat transfer. Videos you watch may be added to the TV's watch history and. As you study this system, try to understand what happens to the refrigerant as it passes through each part of the cycle. • However, for large industrial applications efficiency, not simplicity, is the major concern. Coefficient of Performance – Refrigerator, Air Conditioner. For example: "To operate a frost free system the air cooled by the refrigeration system and, ultimately, the evaporator must be blown used forced air into the cavity. The Carnot cycle heat-engine can be called as a fully reversible cycle. Where the leak cannot be identified or the gas charge has been lost, then it will be necessary to find the leak by pressurising the system with Nitrogen. These components may be in difference shape, capacity and size, but it does the same thing. Animation of Simscape Logging Results. The Basic Arena Refrigeration course introduces participants to the cycle of refrigeration and primary mechanical components of an ice rink refrigeration system. The process is shown in a pressure-enthalpy diagram. The Carnot cycle is a theoretical ideal thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s. As we can see in the Ph diagram below. First, we describe measurements of the P-V diagram using an in-expensive pressure sensor and a common photogate. UNIT SUMMARY - 1. The pressure-enthalpy diagram (log P/h diagram) is a very useful tool for refrigerant technicians. In the refrigeration cycle, there are five basic components: fluid refrigerant; a compressor, which controls the flow of refrigerant; the condenser coils (on the outside of the fridge); the evaporator coils (on the inside of the fridge); and something called an expansion device. on refrigeration cycles more than on the actual componen- ts used. 3 Performance of Refrigeration System. An air conditioner works using a thermodynamic cycle called the refrigeration cycle. The ammonia refrigeration cycle works by bringing warm air into the refrigeration system, stripping the heat out of it, and then sending the cooled air back where it needs to be. A schematic drawing of a simple cycle is shown in Figure 1 together with a typical pressure-enthalpy diagram for a sub-critical cycle. For the ideal cycle there is no pressure drop or work in a heat transfer device so P1 = P4 = 140 kPa and P2 = P3 = 800 kPa. Published on Aug 27, 2016. Figure 2, shows the p-h diagram of CO 2. Figure 5 - A simple stylized diagram of a heat pump's vapor-compression refrigeration cycle: 1) condenser, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator, 4) compressor. Comparison. compression method of mechanical refrigeration [11]. 6 as shown in the figure. • Define the volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating compressor. Chapter 10 Refrigeration Cycles 10-4. 2 superimposes the state of the CO2 refrigerant on a pressure-enthalpy (p-h) diagram as it cycles through the system. First, we describe measurements of the P-V diagram using an in-expensive pressure sensor and a common photogate. Easy safe secure online shopping. Refrigeration handbook 1. Based on the heat of fusion being 333. The refrigeration cycle explains to us what is happening to the ac freon in each of the four components within the air conditioner units. UNIT SUMMARY - 1. 5 Other components; 3. Carnot cycle, and any other conceivable power cycle, is to be run clockwise in both the -s and p-V T thermodynamic diagrams, since the heat engine receives net heat, that in a reversible process is net Q= ∫ T d S (recall the area interpretation of integrals), and delivers net work, that in a reversible process is W net =∫ p d V; notice that. Updated: 4 years ago. Basic Vapor Compression Cycle, the Carnot CycleFour main elements are required to complete the basic refrigeration cycle, a compressor, a condenser, a metering device (expansion valve in this case), and an evaporator, all labeled below in the system diagram along with connecting components. The design cycle has a refrigeration effect of 61 Btu/pound of refrigerant. In this case a work input in the amount of W rev is required to achieve. The main components • • • • There are four main components in a refrigeration system: The Compressor The Condensing Coil The Metering Device The Evaporator 3. (a) Sketch the hardware for all three working fluids of this refrigerant-ice making system and the T-s diagram for refrigeration cycle. In an ideal cycle, the refriger-ant vapor would enter the compressor as a saturated vapor…no superheat. A two-stage compression refrigeration system operates with refrigerant-134a between the pressure limits of 1. In this lab dichlorofluoroethane (R141b) was used as the refrigerant, and the mass flow rate of water coming into the evaporator and the condenser was varied. heat transfer from low to high temperature) cannot occur by itself (Claussius Definition of Second Law). This is the currently selected item. Room B becomes cooler. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. The dehumidifier, shown in figure, is a refrigeration cycle in which moist air flowing over the evaporator cools such that liquid water drops out, and the air continues flowing over the condenser. The YORK® Process Systems team designs, develops, and deploys customized solutions for a range of processing industries. The trainer is a completely self contained and fully operational unit that contains the basic components found in many refrigeration and air conditioning systems. In a heat engine, an input of heat causes an increase in the temperature of the working substance, allowing the working substance to perform work. Hvac Air Conditioning Refrigeration And Air Conditioning Electrical Circuit Diagram Electrical Wiring Cooling System Heating And Cooling Reciprocating Compressor Hvac Tools Hvac Maintenance Understanding refrigeration system its components, superheat & subcooling. The state points for the cycle are shown on the diagram. It normally shows only what the terminal board connections are, and very rarely will it include any internal wiring of the unit. The refrigerant then passes back to the compressor, and the cycle is repeated. The evaporator draws heat from the region that is to be cooled. The basic heat pump cycle is identical to the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle shown in Figures 1 and 2, the only difference between a heat pump and a refrigerator being their basic functions. A refrigeration cycle works on essentially the same principle that makes your hand feel cold when. 2 Actual Cycle. A refrigerator compressor is the center of the refrigeration cycle. In an air conditioner or a refrigeration system, refrigerant is designed to boil at a low temperature that corresponds to the design of the system. View 1-Ref Cycle Explained on P-h Diagram from MET 217 at Yanbu Industrial College. CoolPack was developed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEK), Section of Thermal Energy (TES) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This Cogitation is to base on idea simple cycle with no losses. c-WIRING DIAGRAM: Refer to the wiring diagram for any service work per-formed on this unit. 5 Superheating 10 1. The ideal vapor‐compression refrigeration cycle The vapor-compression refrigeration is the most widely used cycle for refrigerators, air-conditioners, and heat pumps. You can think of the expansion valve as a small hole. Generally you have an evaporator coil and condensing coil. The diagram will hence show the saturation curve. 262 shapes in 18 Visio stencils (9 US units and 9 metric units) shapes in 18 stencils. Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle Simulator Operating Parameters. The refrigeration cycles can also be represented in a P-H diagram. Glycol refrigeration systems from Zero Zone are available for use with glycol or CO2 as the secondary coolant. The refrigeration cycle used in dense-air refrigerating machines consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. The purpose of a refrigerator is the removal of heat, called the cooling load, from a low-temperature medium. All units are supplied with ABS (UV) protected covers, In-Cab control with digital cargo box temperature display, condenser fan cycle control and high/low pressure protection. Typical refrigeration systems consist of four main stages: • Evaporation • Compression • Condensation • Expansion Figure 1. The above figure shows the objectives of refrigerators and heat pumps. tive merits of water-cooled chillers, the refrigeration cycle for a water-cooled centrifugal chiller is explained using pressure-enthalpy diagrams. We see from the model, heat Q L is absorbed from the low-temperature reservoir (T L =constant) and heat Q H is rejected to a high-temperature reservoir (T H =constant). The refrigerant absorbs heat from one place and releases it to another place. SELECTING THE RIGHT REFRIGERANT Several refrigerants may be used in refrigeration systems such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), ammonia, hydrocarbons (propane, ethane, ethylene, etc. IN DRY, WARMER AIR OUT DESERT AIRE DEHUMIDIFIER (Standard) This technical bulletin will show how a refriger ant type dehumidifier recovers the heat from the water vapor and d isperses the energy to different heat sinks. Another well-known refrigeration cycle is the gas refrigeration cyclein which the refrigerant remains in the gaseous phase throughout. download the script: The Reversed Carnot Cycle Unlike the Carnot heat engine, the Carnot refrigeration cycle undergoes a process with opposite direction. Performance of Reciprocating Compressors 13. Figure 5: P-H diagram representation of a dry refrigeration cycle. Also, a copy of the wiring diagram is located on page 7 of this manual. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. certain direction. This is repeated until the thermostat in room A is satisfied. Welcome to the NEW and permanent home for my little website for people interested in vintage gas refrigeration manufactured by the Servel Corporation of Evansville, Indiana! Servel (also called Electrolux-Servel), starting in 1927, and continuing through 1956, built millions of gas and kerosene powered refrigerators, gas water heaters. Basic refrigeration cycle Nina sri maulani (121624023) TPTU 2012 2. From the thousand images online about schematic diagram of refrigeration cycle, selects the very best series together with ideal quality exclusively for you all, and this pictures is one among photos choices in this finest images gallery about Schematic Diagram Of Refrigeration Cycle. wc =h2 − h1. Industrial refrigeration differs greatly from domestic refrigeration because of the large scale and complexities involved. REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING 1. If we understand how the refrigeration cycle works, we'll understand how any air conditioner works. R-12 and R-22 have the highest specific. Should you require another copy, or a wiring diagram for an older production unit, please contact Traulsen Service at (800) 825-8220. The sign of W cycle is negative since the overall effect of the Carnot cycle shown in Figure 5. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram The Pressure-Enthalpy (P-H) diagram is another way of looking at the refrigeration cycle. Refrigeration cycle vector Typical refrigeration cycle. Students in the Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVACR) Program learn in modern, well-equipped labs. Compressors 4. The cycle that results is called the ideal vapor- compression refrigeration cycle, and it is shown schematically and on a T-s diagram in Fig. Notice that the y-axis is pressure and the x axis is enthalpy. Topics include fundamental items and concepts used by the refrigeration plant operator in the course of duty, the refrigeration cycle, physical properties of various refrigerants, refrigerant performance tables, compressor types, compressor operation and maintenance, lubrication, cooling units, condensers and high pressure receivers and purging. There are many students of thermodynamics that are versed in Mollier diagrams and the refrigeration cycle as it relates to industrial refrigeration. R22 P/H Diagram * Diagram created using REFPROP – NIST Reference Fluid Properties As can be seen, the critical point of R-22 is more than 200°F, placing it well above the operating conditions of typical refrigeration systems. This is repeated until the thermostat in room A is satisfied. Cycle diagram Template to show how things are related to each other in a repeating cycle. Diagram) if required. Water and liquid ammonia begin to boil and ammonia vapor rises up to the condenser, the highest portion of the cooling unit. Illustration of handler, cooling, energy - 26303864. Refrigeration cycle explained: it's 5 essential parts: Below is the refrigeration basic schematic diagram (click to expand images below) separated into :. The fridge gets colder and the kitchen gets warmer. Mechanical refrigeration is accomplished by continuously circulating, evaporating, and condensing a fixed supply of refrigerant in a closed system. True False. The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is the most widely used cycle for refrigerators, air-conditioning systems, and heat pumps. Updated: 4 years ago. To begin, a refrigeration cycle is “a sequence of thermodynamic processes through which a refrigerant passes, in a closed or open system, to absorb heat at a relatively low temperature level and reject heat at a higher temperature level” (Witt Refrigeration Engineering Manual pg 36) In order to explain this definition in better detail, we provide. Chapter 9 Refrigeration and Liquefaction refrigeration cycle is a reversed heat-engine cycle. Both were problematic - ammonia is toxic and carbon dioxide requires extremely high presures (from around 30 to 200 atmospheres!) to operate in a refrigeration cycle, and since it operates on a transcritical cycle the compressor outlet. (a) Sketch the hardware for all three working fluids of this refrigerant-ice making system and the T-s diagram for refrigeration cycle. The exhibit at left was found while wandering through the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington DC. The evaporator pressure is 160 kPa. The refrigerant absorbs heat from one place and releases it to another place. Aside from power consump-tion, two other parameters with impact on investment cost are significantly different for the two refrigeration processes. How it works. Jul 23, 2014 - Pressure enthalpy diagram of the refrigeration cycle Stay safe and healthy. Related posts: Compressor Wiring Diagram Single Phase. YANBU INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE Mechanical Engineering Technology Department MET 217 REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING. I have to move pebbles and all of that. Small arrows indicate the direction of heat flow into or out of the refrigerator coils. Schematic diagram of the refrigeration cycle based on barocaloric effects. Temperature varia-tions may result from changes in load or ambient. This refrigeration system components consists of a compressor, cooler, Expander, and refrigerator. 2-1 shows a typical P-H (Pressure-Enthalpy) diagram for R-22. It also allows a theoretical analysis and - Operating cycle on pressure-enthalpy diagram. The direction of the cyclic process in theT-s diagram determines w hether this is a heat pump cycle (refrigeration cycle) or a work machine cycle (steam power cycle). the "reversible Carnot cycle" is the thermodynamically ideal cycle between two given temperatures. A systematic diagram of propane refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 1. For example: "To operate a frost free system the air cooled by the refrigeration system and, ultimately, the evaporator must be blown used forced air into the cavity. In the dense-air cycle, the refrigerant (air) is drawn by a compressor from the space to be cooled. All air conditioner units must have the five basic components to work: The compressor ; The condenser; The expansion device; The evaporator; The copper refrigerant tube (a tube that connects these air conditioner parts). Basic refrigeration cycle Nina sri maulani (121624023) TPTU 2012 2. Mechanical refrigeration is accomplished by continuously circulating, evaporating, and condensing a fixed supply of refrigerant in a closed system. Students build on fundamental electrical skills learned in the starting and charging course. Basic heat transfer 2. 5 Other components; 3. The process of refrigeration or vapor-compression cycle in HVAC air conditioning and heat pump applications is a mechanical and chemical process of moving heat from one place where it is not wanted or needed and moving it to another place. The third and last type of diagram is the installation diagram. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The problem with the simple gas refrigeration cycle is that the working fluid can never enter the turbine COOLER than the hot reservoir. In this cycle, the refrigerant is sealed condition in an airtight mechanism is compressed in a compressor which permits the transfer of heat energy. The cooler suction line cools the bulb. Chapter 17: Power, would produce a refrigeration effect if run backwards in the T-s diagram. According to the simulation results, COP and volumetric refrigeration capacity of IARC were increased by 7. Such diagrams for R134a and R1234yf are found in handbooks (ASHRAE, 2009). Refrigeration cycle – Evaporation, compression, condensation and expansion. A schematic drawing of a simple cycle is shown in Figure 1 together with a typical pressure-enthalpy diagram for a sub-critical cycle. Reversed Carnot Cycle. The direction of the cyclic process in theT-s diagram determines w hether this is a heat pump cycle (refrigeration cycle) or a work machine cycle (steam power cycle). This is the currently selected item. Determine Coefficient of Performance (CoP). Tools of the Trade. There you will find the floodback that is essential to maximise the productivity of the evaporator, while. 90 The states are numbered as in figure below The refrigeration capacity is 4. com What is the Refrigeration Cycle Summary? GCAP’s Airplane Wing? Four Steps of Refrigeration Homework Chapter 9 – Liquid Feeds Liquid or Gas? What are Some Evaporator Names? What are the Three Feeds?. Table 2 is a typical experiment of the refrigeration cycle. This is the definition of 1 ton of refrigeration. Refrigeration Cycle It is a well known fact that heat flows in the direction of decreasing temperature, i. Figure 4 is a pressure-enthalpy diagram of a typical refrigeration cycle in a system with one pound of HFC-134a. There you will find the floodback that is essential to maximise the productivity of the evaporator, while. Cycle with wet vapor after compression, 3. A p-h diagram for R22 in SI unit is used. AmmoniaTraining. Refrigeration And Air Conditioning Heating And Air Conditioning Cooling System Heating And Cooling Heat Pump Air Conditioner Chemical And Physical Changes Solar Inverter Circuit Diagram Ac Circuit. For refrigeration at a temperature level of 278. It’s time to bring it all together. 30 provides the T–s diagram of a Carnot refrigeration cycle for which the substance is Refrigerant 134a. Back to Tutoring Topics. 8 Refrigerants 12 1. The exhibit at left was found while wandering through the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington DC. This figure shows the evolution of the fluid states in the transcritical refrigeration cycle over time. While some people have viewed this method as environmentally harmful and inefficient, the cycle is still applicable in the industrial sphere. We see from the model, heat Q L is absorbed from the low-temperature reservoir (T L =constant) and heat Q H is rejected to a high-temperature reservoir (T H =constant). The Basic Cycle:. Vapor-compression. Refrigeration Unit: hermetically sealed, operating to maintain dew point of [5] [13] [ ] degrees F at 20 psig and housed in steel cabinet with access door and panel. Work done by isothermic process. C Cl2 F C pt100 temperature resistance table pdf Cl F2 R113. The four points on the refrigeration cycle (compressor inlet, condenser inlet, expansion valve inlet, and evaporator inlet) are plotted on the pressure-enthalpy diagram. The 12,000 Btu/hour design divided 60 minutes, is 200 Btu/minute. [84,85] proposed an internal auto-cascade refrigeration cycle (IARC) and compared the performance between IARC and conventional refrigeration cycle. Table 2 is a typical experiment of the refrigeration cycle. Figure 4: Wet refrigeration Cycle - The expander has been substituted by a throttling valve. The refrigeration cycle is a critical component of HVAC systems and is governed by the principles of thermodynamics. The remaining 20% allows us to customize. Published on Aug 27, 2016. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment, and the COP are to be determined. For this reason, all air conditioners use the same cycle of compression, condensation. • Define the volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating compressor. We’ll discuss the refrigeration cycle using the cycle diagram below. The Basic Cycle:. Natural gas plants, petroleum refineries, and petrochemical plan. The Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle and has the maximum efficiency thermally and from a fundamental process viewpoint. The compressor constricts the refrigerant vapor, raising its pressure and temperature, and pushes it into the coils of the condenser on the outside of the refrigerator. The air is adiabatically compressed, passes through a cooler, and is adiabatically expanded in an expansion engine. Chiller Systems Design. The Refrigeration lab was conducted to gain a better understanding of the vapour-compression refrigeration cycle, and to compare the ideal cycle with the real cycle. It works as a pump to control the circulation of the refrigerant, and it adds pressure to the refrigerant, heating it up. Liquids absorb heat when changed from liquid to gas. Warm humid air entering the freezer section when you open the door collects on the evaporator coils as frost. Let’s consider removing 10. The following schematic shows a basic refrigeration or heat pump system with typical property values. The pressure-enthalpy diagram or P-H diagram is a tool that all HVAC and Refrigeration engineers should be able to use proficiently. It tells us how much refrigerant the evaporator absorbs, the refrigerant properties in the compressor, and how much refrigerant the condenser rejects. The refrigerant travels to the condenser (Which can be air cooled by fans or water cooled by tower or city water). System Operators. The Refrigeration Cycle and Air Conditioning Cycle - Basics are covered step-by-step, to give a complete understanding on the Refrigerator and Air Conditioner Working Principle. Understanding the basic refrigeration cycle diagram also. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. 15 K (5°C) in a surroundings at 303. Refrigerant fluid. The stream entering the evaporator at temperature. UNIT SUMMARY - 1. CoolPack was developed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (MEK), Section of Thermal Energy (TES) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The Carnot cycle can be thought of as the most efficient heat engine cycle allowed by physical laws. Above cycle compresses gas from atmospheric pressure to 8 bar in a single stage. Quasistatic and reversible processes. The layout shown below is a clickable image. The refrigerant leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid and is throttled to a flash chamber operating at 0. Installation & Service Manual PARALLEL COMPRESSORS & ENVIROGUARD Save these Instructions for Future Reference!! These refrigerator systems conform to the Commercial Refrigeration Manufacturers Association Health and Sanitation standard CRS-S1-86. Typically this would be in the 65°F to 95°F range. The refrigeration changes from saturated vapor to saturated liquid at 30°C in the condenser as it rejects heat. Unlike the situation with steam power plants it is common practice to begin the design and analysis of refrigeration and heat pump systems by first plotting the cycle on the P-h diagram. 25 on T-S diagram. Essentially, heat is taken from a body at lower temperature, say the food you want to store in the refrigerated chamber. The four points on the refrigeration cycle (compressor inlet, condenser inlet, expansion valve inlet, and evaporator inlet) are plotted on the pressure-enthalpy diagram. The Basic Arena Refrigeration course introduces participants to the cycle of refrigeration and primary mechanical components of an ice rink refrigeration system. Chapter 10: Refrigeration Cycles The vapor compression refrigeration cycle is a common method for transferring heat from a low temperature to a high temperature. The compressed gas heats up as it is pressurized (orange). Sketch cycles on a pressure - enthalpy diagram. Since the temperature of the condenser coil is higher than the temperature of the air passing through it, heat is transferred from the warm refrigerant in the condenser coil to the air, thus warming it. Is there any software for plotting actual cycle p-h diagram of refrigeration system for more than 1 refrigerant in a diagram to compare each other? Thank you in advance. The design cycle has a refrigeration effect of 61 Btu/pound of refrigerant. View 1-Ref Cycle Explained on P-h Diagram from MET 217 at Yanbu Industrial College. Animation of Simscape Logging Results. Dangers of Ammonia Refrigeration. Recommendations: Use with a 3/4″ thick copper pipe with an approximate length of 6′. But it is without prejudice to the conclusion that ammonia-water absorption cycle could utilize low-grade waste heat efficiently over long distance. Courses focus on the fundamentals of comfort systems and refrigeration. DEMONSTRATIVE CYCLE Educational and Training Equipment REFRIGERATION AND HEAT PUMP STUDY UNIT Compact table top unit enable to the study in the practical aspect of the refrigeration cycle. Definitions Part 2 Energy. Shown on the TS diagram are the four steps of the process. Traulsen refrigeration has long been the gold standard for foodservice providers everywhere. The vacuum from the compressor sucks the cold gas back around, and the cycle repeats as long as the compressor is running. True False. • Explain the ammonia vapour absorption cycle. Refrigeration cycle is the basis of all refrigeration systems. 1 Introduction The properties of refrigerant do not remain constant during the operation of the system. In this cycle, the refrigerant is sealed condition in an airtight mechanism is compressed in a compressor which permits the transfer of heat energy. The refrigeration changes from saturated vapor to saturated liquid at 30°C in the condenser as it rejects heat. inside a refrigerator) divided by the work W done to remove the heat (i. Trane chillers are relied upon for both comfort and process applications in every corner of the world. 5-3: T-s and P-h diagrams for an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. If we understand how the refrigeration cycle works, we'll understand how any air conditioner works. The former of these is negative. Determine (a) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and power input to the compressor, (b) the rate of heat. 1 This effect is obeyed by all transition metals and lanthanide-series elements. This is the currently selected item. Yesterday, our instructor was teaching us how to plot on Pressure-Enthalpy charts also called Pressure-heat charts or Mollier Diagrams. This cycle is often used as a comparison cycle to describe the quality of the cyclic process. Although each separate part covers a specific area of refrigera-tion theory and practice, each successive publication presumes a basic understanding of the material presented in the previous sections. Strong solution of ammonia is formed in the absorber, dissolving fairly dry Ammonia Vapour in cold water. Most of the time, heat pumps (used for heating) are considered under the refrigeration heading, since the. The compressor constricts the refrigerant vapor, raising its pressure and temperature, and pushes it into the coils of the condenser on the outside of the refrigerator. Throttling devices are another vital parts of all the refrigeration systems and air conditioning systems apart from the compressor, condenser and the evaporator. The Refrigeration Cycle and Air Conditioning Cycle - Basics are covered step-by-step, to give a complete understanding on the Refrigerator and Air Conditioner Working Principle. A few of the important points of deviations of this cycle as compared to the ideal theoretical cycle are explained below: (i) Process 1-2-3:. Expansion valves 5. Here is a picture gallery about schematic diagram of refrigeration cycle complete with the description of the image, please find the image you need. handbook and study the appropriate sections. Cooling Load Calculations 11. Such diagrams for R134a and R1234yf are found in handbooks (ASHRAE, 2009). In the process, heat is absorbed from the chilled water circulating through the bundle. Pressure-enthalpy (p-h) diagram of CO2 (subcritical and transcritical refrigeration cycles). Determine the power requirement and COP for a Carnot refrigeration cycle and for an ideal. The defrost heater melts the frost during the defrost cycle. Table 2 is a typical experiment of the refrigeration cycle. Table 2 is a typical experiment of the refrigeration cycle. The Rankine cycle is a modified form of Carnot cycle, in which the isothermal compression (3-4) is continued unit the steam is condensed into water. NATURAL REFRIGERANTS. he flash chamber is maintained at the same pressure as the low pressure discharge which is 0. This figure shows the evolution of the fluid states in the transcritical refrigeration cycle over time. These diagrams can be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals book. 10-11 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. Proof: U = (3/2)PV or U = (3/2)nRT. wc =h2 − h1. Gas turbines are used to generate power at many places. We have 4 Follett Symphony 12CI400A-S manuals available for free PDF download: Installation, Operation And Service Manual Refrigeration Cycle Diagram. Room B becomes cooler. It's not cold! The next thing you do is open up the freezer and see if that is still working properly. Should you require another copy, or a wiring diagram for an older production unit, please contact Traulsen Service at (800) 825-8220. What is the first law of thermodynamics? Work from expansion. 391x10 6 kJ/h (2886 kW) from a process gas at -35°C and rejecting it to the environment by the condenser at 35°C. The basic components of any refrigeration system (Figure 11. 88°C) indoor temperature, the evaporator coil will contain refrigerant boiling at around 40°F(4. Basics like molecular change due to Sensible & Latent heat variation, Heat, Temperature and Pressure are covered intricately. Basic Refrigerator principle is reverse carnot cycle. the refrigeration effect decreases as condenser temperature increases. Easy safe secure online shopping. ) Can be cost prohibitive for smaller applications •Two Speed Evaporator Fans. 6 as shown in the figure. Updated: 4 years ago. This diagram shows the major steps in the refrigeration cycle. Description of a basic chiller refrigeration system: Starting at the compressor; the refrigerant is compressed and sent out of the compressor as a high temperature, high pressure, superheated gas. The refrigerant leaves the compressor at high pressure and temperature and enters the condenser. Cryocoolers – Introduction Cryocoolers are small refrigerators that can reach cryogenic temperatures and provide refrigeration in the temperature range 10 K to 120 K. Principles of Refrigeration. Enthalpy diagram for a Pure Refrigerant R22. Figure 4: Wet refrigeration Cycle - The expander has been substituted by a throttling valve. 02 Produced by Danfoss AC-DSL, HBS. The cycle of this system is divided into two periods: First, the adsorbent is heated by solar energy during the day and the desorbed adsorbate is condensed. The groceries and the outside air act as thermal reservoirs in this process. This cycle is often used as a comparison cycle to describe the quality of the cyclic process. The representation of a real absorption refrigeration cycle on a T–s diagram can directly depict the energetic superiority of one design over another. expansion valve d. Component Sizing Chart Usage. Compressor. Process flow diagrams for a simple refrigeration system and with a heat exchanger economizer In order to study the effect of HEX economizer, we considered the following scenarios: The condensed liquid at temperature of 35°C (95°F) was cooled starting from 33 to 24 °C (91. The small but mighty seal is a wax ring that sits on the floor and stops both water and foul odors from leaking into your home. The problem with the simple gas refrigeration cycle is that the working fluid can never enter the turbine COOLER than the hot reservoir. The design cycle has a refrigeration effect of 61 Btu/pound of refrigerant. In the evaporator, heat from the process water or water/glycol solution boils the refrigerant, which changes it from a low-pressure liquid to a low-pressure gas. The process of refrigeration or vapor-compression cycle in HVAC air conditioning and heat pump applications is a mechanical and chemical process of moving heat from one place where it is not wanted or needed and moving it to another place. A simplified schematic diagram of the DAR cycle is depicted in Figure 1. 1-2: A reversible, adiabatic (isentropic) compression of the refrigerant. refrigeration cycle. During the normal refrigeration cycle, the system acts just like any other DX system where the condenser provides the liquid refrigerant that will feed the system TEVs. The fridge gets colder and the kitchen gets warmer. none of the above. The trainer is a completely self contained and fully operational unit that contains the basic components found in many refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Actual Refrigerating Cycles 9. 5-3: T-s and P-h diagrams for an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. Defrosting the Evaporator Coils When you open the refrigerator or freezer door, all of the cold air rolls out and is replaced by air with moisture in it. Vapor Compression Cycle -Working Diagram A refrigeration system can also be used as a heat pump, in which the useful output is the high-temperature heat rejected at the condenser. The DAR system includes: (i) a generator which is basically a. The representation of a real absorption refrigeration cycle on a T-s diagram can directly depict the energetic superiority of one design over another. The Refrigeration Cycle. Figure 7 is the refrigeration cycle shown in a P-T-X diagram. Please practice hand-washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times. Heat source would be the Saturated Condensing condition of the ammonia refrigeration system. Temperature - Entropy (T - s) diagrams. 4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps. The high-pressure ammonia liquid flows through the expansion valve. The process is shown in a pressure-enthalpy diagram. For many decades, the manufacturers and technicians relied on the. • Define the volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating compressor. Quantitative Stirling Cycle Measurements: P-V Diagram and Refrigeration Y. A Carnot cycle, using steam as a working substance, is represented or p-v and t-s diagram as shown in the figure. Receiver • A tank to store liquid refrigerant not being used to cool evaporator coil, required on systems with remote. Selection of blower is made properly to allow air circulation and to increase the flow rate for higher heat. Cycle Diagrams and the Simple Saturated Cycle 8. Principles of Refrigeration. The refrigerant leaves the compressor at high pressure and temperature and enters the condenser. The process is shown in a pressure-enthalpy diagram. In a heat engine, an input of heat causes an increase in the temperature of the working substance, allowing the working substance to perform work. This is often measured at the liquid’s boiling point. Let's study about "How to draw a refrigerant cycle" in series, using the documents with courtesy of Mr. Simple refrigeration system studied in the laboratory is a prototype for a variety of engineering applications utilized in industrial, domestic and scientific purposes. The Carnot power cycle can be operated in the opposite direction to act as a refrigeration or heat pump cycle. higher effect on the performance of vapor compression refrigeration cycle are listed below. Shown on the TS diagram are the four steps of the process. • Define the volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating compressor. Both are located in the appliance. Process flow diagrams for a simple refrigeration system and with a heat exchanger economizer In order to study the effect of HEX economizer, we considered the following scenarios: The condensed liquid at temperature of 35°C (95°F) was cooled starting from 33 to 24 °C (91. It important to understand the basic refrigeration cycle, to comprehend what is going on within the air conditioner units, we cannot see it. In a refrigeration cycle, the flow of refrigerant is controlled by (A) Compressor (B) Condense. The cascade cycle is often employed for devices such as ULT freezers. FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Ammonia cooling systems make the basis of industrial refrigeration for industries such as frozen foods, pharmaceuticals, food processing and beverage processing. or type L copper tubing. The pressure-enthalpy diagram or P-H diagram is a tool that all HVAC and Refrigeration engineers should be able to use proficiently. Refrigeration cycle diagram - Buy this stock vector and explore similar vectors at Adobe Stock. To cool the refrigerant down it is passed through the expansion valve, this will reduce the pressure of the refrigerant by restricting how much can flow through the valve. This figure shows the evolution of the fluid states in the transcritical refrigeration cycle over time. To calculate the refrigerating capacity, i. refrigerant condenses to a liquid and settles to the bottom level of the condenser coil. 2 Basic components; 2. Joule offers the following standard Refrigeration (MRU) Plants for quick delivery: Joule utilizes an 80/20 standardization design philosophy. Modeling and Investigation of Refrigeration System Performance with Two-Phase Fluid Injection in a Scroll Compressor Rui Gu Marquette University Recommended Citation Gu, Rui, "Modeling and Investigation of Refrigeration System Performance with Two-Phase Fluid Injection in a Scroll Compressor" (2016). Diagram of Samsung Samsung Refrigeration rb215labpxaa0000, Kenmore Elite Parts List, rm2510 Diagram of Parts, Diagram of Delta 16-1/2" Drill Press 17900, silentmax10003042 Diagram of Parts, Diagram of Delta Router/Shaper 43505, Model wed4800xq0 Diagram of Parts, Diagram of Coleman Thermo-Electric Cooler 5232807, Model wf220anwxaa0001 Diagram of. Identify and diagram the different components. PV-diagrams and expansion work. Basic Dehumidification Refrigeration Flow Diagrams I NTRODUCTION Technical Bulletin 2 HUMID AIR AT ROOM TEMP. refrigeration cycle efficiency improvement are illustrated as the following: Flash Intercooler: The FIG. The PH diagram for refrigerant 22 used in this refrigeration cycle is shown below. Recommendations: Use with a 3/4″ thick copper pipe with an approximate length of 6′. Refrigeration Cycle Diagnostics I Just spent a day in Michael Prokup's Air Conditioning systems refrigeration cycle diagnostics seminar. Vapor-compression. 4 Refrigeration and air conditioning systems. In the evaporator, heat from the process water or water/glycol solution boils the refrigerant, which changes it from a low-pressure liquid to a low-pressure gas. Figure 1-5 Refrigeration Cycle on the P-H Diagram Take the structure image of this refrigeration cycle from Figure 1-5, it becomes the P-H diagram for engineering calculation as shown in Figure 1-6.